Kata – kata yang berkenaan tentang masalah ekonomi ;

Diunduh dari koran di atas ;

·         export ;

·         valuta;

·         embargo of economic

·         critical of method

·         import

·         devisit

 Arti dalam Bahasa Indonesia

·         Mengekspor

·         Orientasi

·         Pembatasan perdagangan berbasis ekonomi

·         Metode bersifat mengkritik dan berkenaan dengan ekonomi

·         pemasukan

·         Penurunan Keuangan


Running                        by No Doubt

Running all the time
Running to the future
With you right by my side

I'm the one you chose
Out of all the people
You wanted me the most
I'm so sorry that I'm falling
Help me up lets keep on running
Don't let me fall out of love

Running, running
As fast as we can
I really hope you make it
(Do you think we'll make it?)
We're running
Keep holding my hand
It's so we don't get separated

Be the one I need
Be the one I trust most
Don't stop inspiring me
Sometimes it's hard to keep on running
We work so much to keep it going
Don't make me want to give up

·       Makna / pesan dari lagu ini ;

Someone who has a desire that has been the hope of finding - searching, fell into the right hopes people help what he dreamed. He continued running looking, until he was not aware of that he inspired many people. He didn't want to give everything what has easily to other people.

Nama : Aan Andrianto
NPM : 10210003
Team work -
Dosen : Mr. Dicky


Present perfect tense digunakan untuk menyatakan tindakan atau situasi yang pernah atau sudah terjadi. Kapan terjadinya tindakan atau situasi itu tidak terlalu penting.
Pola kalimat present perfect tense.

Pola I

(+) S + have/has + V3

(-) S + have/has + not + V3

(?) Have/has + S + V3

Contoh Kalimat :

I have finished my work.

She has not eaten lunch.

Have you seen that movie

Pola II

(+) S + have/has + been + Adj/Adv/N

(-) S + have/has + not + been + Adj/Adv/N

(?) Have/has + S + been + Adj/Adv/N

Contoh Kalimat :

She has been sick for two days.

They have not been busy for one day.

Have you been here for two hours?


Has dipakai jika subjek adalah orang ketiga tunggal (he, she, it).

Dalam percakapan (present perfect tense) biasanya subject dan auxiliary verb mengalami penyingkatan (contraction). Dan kadang-kadang dalam bentuk tulisan, penyingkatan ini juga dipakai.

I’ve finished my work.

She’s been sick for two days.

Singkatan ‘s setelah subjek orang ketiga dapat berarti auxiliary verbs (kata kerja bantu) have atau be. “It’s eaten” dapat berarti:

It has eaten. [present perfect tense, active voice]

It is eaten. [present tense, passive voice]

Perhatikan konteksnya, maka akan jelas auxiliary verbs yang mana yang dipakai.

Exercise :

1. Have you ever .......... to New York?
    a) flew    b) went    c) goed    d) been

2. No I've never .......... there.   

    a) been    b) went    c) was    d) existed

3. In fact I've just .......... back from there.   

    a) been    b) gone    c) came    d) come

4. and I've .......... at least six weeks there in the last year.   

    a) past    b) passed    c) spent    d) spend

5. Have you .......... to the top of the Empire State Building?
   a) flown    b) sat up    c) grown up    d) gone up

6. No, I .......... yet.   
a) haven't     b) don't    c) not    d) won't

7. I haven't .......... the ferry to Ellis Island either.    

   a) taken    b) swam    c) jumped over    d) driven

8. I've just .......... work so hard.    

    a) looked    b) seen    c) must    d) had to

9. though I have .......... dinner at Sardi's    

    a) had    b) taken    c) seen    d) served

10. and .......... a Broadway show.    

     a) taken    b) watched    c) seen    d) starred in



Simple Past Tense

Simple Past Tense digunakan untuk fakta-fakta atau peristiwa-peristiwa yang terjadi di masa lampau. Contoh:

  • I played tennis with some guys from work yesterday.
  • We stayed in Shanghai for five days.
Kata kerja simple past tense (kata kerja bentuk ke-2) yang reguler dibentuk dengan menambahkan “-ed” pada akhiran kata kerja. Contoh:

  • jump -> jumped: The dog jumped over the fence.
  • walk -> walked: I walked 22 kilometers yesterday.
  • work -> worked: We worked together as lawyers for 15 years.

Simple past tense digunakan untuk menyatakan sebuah tindakan yang telah selesai dilakukan. Contoh:

  • We watched a movie at the weekend (kami menonton film di akhir pekan)
  • She arrived on Thursday (dia tiba hari Kamis)
Waktu spesifik harus dinyatakan atau diisyaratkan. Contoh:

  • I walked to work this morning - Dalam kalimat ini waktunya disebutkan
  • I walked to work - Dalam kalimat ini waktu tidak disebutkan, tetapi konteks kalimatnya dapat membuat kita memahami waktu yang dimaksud (yakni waktu lampau).
Kalimat negatif

Kalimat negatif simple past tense dibuat dengan did dan not. Did adalah bentuk lampau dari kata kerja to do. Did dan not sering disingkat menjadi didn’t. Contoh:
- I arrived in London on Monday -> I didn’t arrive on Sunday.
- They stayed at the Vivaldi Hotel -> They didn’t stay at the Carlton Hotel.

Karena “did” merupakan bentuk lampau, maka kata kerja utama tidak mengalami perubahan. Contoh:

  • We didn’t live in Italy. Did adalah bentuk lampau sehingga live tidak dirubah menjadi bentuk lampau.
  • We didn’t lived in Italy. Kalimat ini tidak benar
Kalimat bertanya

Pertanyaan dibuat dengan menempatkan did sebelum subjek. Contoh:

  • You lived in Japan -> Did you live in Japan?
  • They stayed at the Vivaldi Hotel -> Did they stay at the Vivaldi Hotel?
Kata kerja utama juga tidak berubah (tidak diganti menjadi bentuk lampau), contoh:
- You lived in Japan -> Did you lived in Japan? (tidak benar)
- You lived in Japan -> Did you live in Japan? (benar)

Exercise : Use the past tense forms of the verbs in the box to complete the sentences. Make sure there are no extra spaces or mispelt words in your answers.

wish ,bathe,catch,put,become,rain,teach,forget,buy,work

1. I......................he groceries on the kitchen counter.

2. Mrs. Staten...............at the same school for 20 years.

3. It..............so much that the river flooded into the town.

4. We.............that it was my youngest nephew's birthday.

5. Mickey................a cold, so he’s going to bed early tonight.

6. Mr. Fisher................an expensive new automobile for his wife.

7. When he was younger, my father..................in a bank.

8. After the ducks....................in the pond, they flapped their wings to dry off.

9. Sally blew out the candles on her birthday cake and..................for a pony.

10. Ms. Ali................president after an election in 1997 that formally ended the war.

Answered :

1. put

2. taught

3. rained

4. forgot

5. caught

6. bought

7. worked

8. bathed

9. wished

10. became


Modal Auxiliaries

Modal auxiliaries are verbs that express many kinds of meaning. Each modal auxiliary often expresses more than one meaning. (Kata kerja Bantu MODAL adalah kata kerja Bantu yang mengungkapkan berbagai macam jenis makna. Setiap MODAL AUXILIARIES biasanya mengungkapkan lebih dari satu makna)

THE FORM OF MODAL auxiliaries

Ya, seperti udah disebutkan sebelumnya, ada banyak jenis modal auxiliaries, namun semua jenis modal auxiliaries tersebut mempunya pola bentuk yang sama. Inilah pola MODAL AUXILIARIES tersebut :


( + ) S + MODAL + V1

She can do the test.

We will go to the hospital

( - ) S + MODAL NOT + V1

She can’t do the test.

We will not go to the hospital.

( ? ) MODAL + S + V1

Can she do the test?

Will we go to the hospital?


Nah dalam bagian berkut ini kita akan melihat berbagai jenis modals yang paling sering digunakan, kegunaannya, serta contoh - contohnya! Selamat belajar.

1.     Can

a. Expressing an Ability (Mengungkapkan Kemampuan)

     Contoh : I can do the test.

b. Expressing a Possibility (Mengungkapkan Kemungkinan)

     Contoh : He can be in the class now.

c. Expressing a Permission (Mengungkapkan ijin)

     Contoh : You can leave me now.

d. Expressing a Request (Mengukapkan permintaan)

     Contoh : Can I leave now?

e. Expressing an Impossibility (Mengungkapkan ketidak mungkinan)

     Contoh : The news can’t be true.

2.    Should

a. Expressing an advisability (Mengungkapkan saran)

     Contoh : We should do something now.

b. Expressing a Future Certainty (Mengukapkan kepastian di masa depan)

     Contoh : They should be there tomorrow.

3.    Must

       a. Expressing a necessity (Mengungkapkan keharusan)

            Contoh : You must do everything I say.

       b. Expressing a Prohibition (Mengungkapkan larangan)

            Contoh : You must not break the school rules.

       c. Expressing a Certainty (Mengukapkan kepastian)

            Contoh : John must be upset. He failed in the final test.

4.    Will

       a. Expressing a certainty (Mengungkapkan kepastian)

            Contoh : We will come to her party. I promise.

       b. Expressing a Willingness (Mengungkapkan Keinginan)

            Contoh : There’s a knock on the door. I will open it.

       c. Expressing a request (Mengungkapkan permintaan)

            Contoh : Will you help me?

Exercise :

1.   I wonder where my reading glasses are. Have you seen them ?

No, I haven’t. You … left them in the office.

a.       Should have

b.      Should be having

c.       Must be having

d.      Could have

e.       Ought to have

Perlu anda ketahui pemakaian could+have+V3 dapat digunakan untuk memberikan pernyataan pada suatu kemungkinan pada waktu lampau atau past possibility. So, the answers is d.

2.   What should the country go to maintain self-sufficiency in rice ?

It … double its rice production.

a.       Could                                       c. had to                       e. will

b.      Must                                        d. would

Lihatlah kembali kalimat jawaban merupakan kalimat pernyataan dan memiliki bentuk waktu yang tepat present tense. Jawaban yang paling tepat adalah must. So the answer is b.

3.   Does Anto Know that Myrna had an accident yesterday ?

I don’t think so. We … as soon as we were informed.

a.       May have told him

b.      Should have told him

c.       Had better tell him

d.      Had to tell him

e.       Must have told him

Sesuatu yang seharusnya dilakukan di waktu lalu (past) tapi tidak dilakukan. Maka pola should+perfect infinitive (should+have) + V3. The answer is b.

4.  I can’t find the fountain pen I bught yesterday.

You … it somewhere.

a.       Might have dropped

b.      Can drop

c.       Ought to have dropped

d.      May drop

e.       Should have dropped

First, melihat situasi di atas adalah tentang suatu kemungkinan yang terjadi di waktu lampau (past) dan belum adanya kepastian jika melihat artinya bukan ? Pola modal perfect yang digunakan adalah might+have+V3 So… the answer is a.

5.   The children … to be careful to cross the river.

a.       Ought

b.      Might

c.       Should

d.      Would

e.       Could

Suatu permintaan keharusan agar lebih sopan digunakan ought yang berpasangan dengan to pada kata berikutnya. So… the answer is a.

6.   Imene : … come in ?

Deep   : Yes, please do.

a.       Will I              b.      Shall I                    e.       Need I

c.       Must I            d.      May I

Bolehkah saya … ? yang paling tepat adalah May I… jawabannya adalah d.

7.   When we went into the house, we … smell something burning.

a.       May               b.      Must                       e.       Will

c.       Should         d.      Could

Menyatakan suatu kesanggupan yang dilakukan dilakukan di waktu lampau saat mampu mencium bau sesuatu yang paling tepat adalah could, the answer is d.

8.    I have been invited my friends to come, They ...................be there tomorrow

a. Would                           b. Could                  e. Must                        

c. Should                         d. May                   

9.    The sky so dark, it............................ be rain

 a. May                            b. Might                         e. Would                              

c. Should                       d. Should

10. There`s a baby area, you ..............................   smoke here.

       a. Ought to                     b. Must not               e. May I             

c. Should not                        d. Will I


Active & Passive voice

Active voice adalah kalimat yang subjeknya melakukan pekerjaan.
Contoh: Azam eats mango. (Azam makan mangga)

Note: Azam = S (melakukan pekerjaan makan)

Passive voice adalah kalimat yang subjeknya dikenai pekerjaan.
Contoh: Mango is eaten by Azam. (mangga dimakan Azam)

Note: Mango = S (dikenai pekerjaan makan)

Kalimat yang dapat diubah dari aktif menjadi pasif adalah kalimat transitif (kalimat yang memiliki objek).

Contoh:  Active     :  Mary helped the boy.

     S + V + O

Passive  :  The boy was helped by Mary.

 S V

Pola dasar kalimat aktif dan pasif:

Perhatikan perubahan tenses dari kalimat aktif ke pasif dalam tabel di bawah ini:

Tenses/Bentuk Verb

Active Voice

Passive Voice

Simple Present

Mary Helps John

John is helped by mary

Present Continuous

Mary is Helping John

John is being helped by mary

Present Prefect

Mary has Helped John

John has been helped by mary

Simple Past

Mary Helped John

John was helped by mary

Past Continuous

Mary was Helping John

John was being helped by mary

Past Perfect

Mary had Helped John

John had been helped by mary

Simple Future

Mary will Help John

John will be helped by mary

Be Going To

Mary is going to Help John

John is going to be helped by mary

Future Prefect

Mary will Have Helped John

John will have been helped by mary

Penggunaan kalimat pasif:


a.    ‘By’ digunakan dalam kalimat pasif apabila pelaku pekerjaan perlu untuk diketahui.

      Contoh:‘Life on the Mississippi’ was written by Mark Twain.

b.    Kalimat pasif digunakan apabila tidak perlu diketahui pelaku pekerjaan.
Contoh:The streets are swept every day.

c.    Kalimat pasif digunakan apabila kita tidak tahu atau lupa siapa pelaku pekerjaan.
Contoh: The professor was murdered.

d.    Kalimat pasif digunakan apabila subject pada kalimat aktif adalah ‘people’.
Contoh: He is suspected of receiving stolen goods. (People suspect him of …)

e.    Kalimat pasif digunakan apabila subject pada kalimat aktif berupa indefinite pronoun ‘one’.

Active : One sees this sort of advertisement everywhere.
Passive : This sort of advertisement is seen everywhere.

f.     Kalimat pasif digunakan apabila kita lebih tertarik dengan pekerjaan (action) daripada siapa pelaku pekerjaan.

      Cotoh: A new public library is being built.

g.    Kalimat pasif dapat digunakan untuk menghindari kalimat yang janggal atau tidak sesuai dengan tata bahasa.

      Contoh: When he arrived home a detective arrested him.
Akan lebih baik : When he arrived home he was arrested (by a detective).

Exercise : Ubahlah Kalimat dari Aktif menjadi Pasif

1.    Mr. Hopkins invited to dinner (Active)

I was invited to dinner by Ms. Hopkins (Passive)

2.    Thomas Edison invented the phonograph (Active)

The phonograph was invented by Thomas Edison (Passive)

3.    Water surrounds an islan (Active)

An island is surrounded by water (Passive)

4.    A Maid will clean our hotel roon (Active)

            Our hotel room will be clenned by a maid (Passive)

5.    A plumber is going to fix the leaky faucet (Active)

The leaky faucet is going to be fixed by a plumber (Passive)

6.    A doctor has examined the sick child (Active)

The sick child has been examined by a doctor (Passive)

7.    The police arrested James Swan (Active)

James Swan was arrested by the police (Passive)

8.    A Large number of people speak Spanish (Active)

Spanish is spoken by a large number of people (Passive)

9.    The secretary is going to answer the letter (Active)

The letter is going to be answered by the secretary (Passive)

10. The teacher’s explanation confused Carlos (Active)

Carlos was confused by the teacher’s explanation (Passive)


Question Tag

Question tags adalah pertanyaan singkat yang diikutkan pada akhir sebuah kalimat untuk membuat pertanyaan.


Kalimat:- She speaks English.

Pertanyaan:- Does she speak English?

Question Tag:- She speaks English, doesn’t she?




Question tag dibentuk dari sebuah kata kerja bantu dan subjek. Jika kalimat positif, kita biasanya menggunakan tag negatif

  Positive Statement ( S + modal Aux / to be +

  Negative Statement

  Command / Request

  Pola Question Tag

Positive Tag: MODAL + SUBJECT ?

Negative Tag: MODAL + NOT + SUBJECT ?


  • That’s a great song, isn’t it?
  • She’s a lawyer, isn’t she?
Jika kalimat negatif, kita gunakan tag positif. Contoh:

  • You‘re not busy, are you?
  • This way isn’t right, is it?
Kata kerja bantu dan subjek dalam question tag sesuai dengan yang terdapat pada kalimat utama. Hanya bentuk positif dan negatifnya yang berubah. Contoh:

  • He can play the trumpet, can’t he?
  • You haven’t finished yet, have you?
Pada kalimat diatas subjek diberi warna biru, dan kata kerja bantu warna hijau. Yang mengalami perubahan hanya bagian dari pertanyaan yang positif atau negatif.



Question tag memiliki dua tujuan utama: untuk menguatkan informasi yang diharapkan dan untuk menanyakan informasi yang tidak diharapkan. Kedua tujuan ini bisa dibedakan berdasarkan intonasi pengucapan yang kita gunakan - jika suara merendah berarti pertanyaan tersebut menanyakan informasi yang diharapkan - jika suara meninggi berarti benar-benar menyanakan sebuah pertanyaan. Contoh:

  • Intonasi menurun - You haven’t finished yet, have you?
Penanya mengharapkan orang yang ditanya telah selesai, penanya hanya memeriksa saja untuk memastikan.

  • Intonasi meningkat - You haven’t finished yet, have you?
Pembicara benar-benar menanyakan apakah yang ditanya sudah selesai atau tidak. Jika yagn ditanya selesai lebih cepat dari yang diharapkan si penanya, maka pembicara akan terkejut.

  • You’re really busy now, aren’t you? - Yes, I’ve got to finish this by Monday.
Orang yang ditanya pada kalimat diatas menguatkan bahwa dia sedang sibuk, kemungkinan dengan menunjukkan simpati juga.

  • Why are you watching TV? You’re really busy now, aren’t you? - Not really, I did most of it last night.
Pada kalimat ini orang yang bertanya menganggap orang yang ditanya sibuk tetapi penanya terkejut sebab orang yang ditanya seharusnya sedang bekerja bukan nonton TV, jadi penanya menanyakan tentang situasi yang tidak diharapkan.

Kalimat negatif dengan tag positif sering digunakan untuk menyatakan permintaan, contoh:

  • You don’t have a pencil, do you?
  • You couldn’t change a $5 bill, could you?
Question tag yang memerintah biasanya menggunakan will, contoh:

  • Open the door for me, will you?
  • Hang on a minute, will you?
Selama tidak digunakan dengan bahasa informal, question tag dengan maksud memerintah sering terdengar tidak bersabar.


1. She is a nurse, _________?

2. They are doctors, __________?

3. Andi is sick, ____________?

4. This car is very expensive, __________?

5. Martha and his sister are beautiful, ____________?

6. We can do it by ourselves, ____________?

7. Your father will fly to Medan, ___________?

8. You were my school friend, ____________?

9. I am right, __________?

10. The cat is hungry, ____________?

Answered ;

1. isn’t she

2. aren’t they

3. isn’t he

4. isn’t it

5. aren’t they

6. can’t we

7. won’t he

8. weren’t you

9. aren’t I

10. isn’t it
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    March 2011



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